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Apr 29

原载【香港】《阳光时务周刊》第48期(2013年3月28日)第59-61页

2012年11月1日,自由亚洲电台藏语部主任阿沛˙晋美(Jigme Ngabo)突遭辞退,引发轩然大波。藏语部绝大多数员工签署联名信,请求晋美留任。一起被辞退的藏语部记者嘉央诺布(Jamyang Norbu)连发数文,披露了一些不为外人所知的隐情。其他声援晋美的人士也纷纷撰文,针对自由亚洲电台和西藏流亡政府做出种种质疑和猜测。有论者称,晋美事件将流亡藏人中长期积压的矛盾公开化了。【该台常年顾问莫拉•莫伊尼汉(Maura Moynihan)将此称为“丑闻”,藏人作家安乐业称之为“闹剧”。】(中括号内语句在刊发时被删除,下同——作者)

美国众议院外交事务委员会监督和调查委员会主席达纳•罗拉巴切(Dana Rohrabacher)分别致信美国众议院外交委员会委员、众议院预算委员会委员、自由亚洲电台台长利比刘(Libby Liu)和西藏流亡政府司政(以前称“总理”或“首席噶伦”)洛桑桑盖(Lobsang Sangay),表达对晋美事件的关切和不满。2013年1月16日,罗拉巴切发布新闻稿称,“有证据显示这是在外国影响下做出的决定”。据说,美国国会已对此展开调查。还有“知情人”称,晋美已聘请律师讨说法。

晋美事件是观察流亡藏人社会的绝佳机会。流亡社区就像一潭静水,平时波澜不惊,外人无法窥视其水下世界。晋美事件就像一块扔进水潭的巨石,借助溅起的水花和水面的瞬间变化,敏锐的观察者可以一窥流亡藏人的隐秘世界。数月的跟踪调查使我进一步了解了流亡藏人复杂、脆弱的生存环境,初步感受了流亡藏人内部的矛盾与纷争。从内部看,流亡藏人面临着民主化和现代化的巨大压力;从外部看,世界格局的调整正给藏人“救亡图存”大业带来新挑战。

进步与守旧

“物竞天择,适者生存。”流亡藏人要继续其未竟事业,就必须首先适应急剧变化的时代,正视信息多元化、诉求多元化对“政教合一的民主制度”的挑战。流亡初期,流亡藏人对达赖喇嘛顶礼膜拜,极少质疑。但今天,达赖喇嘛的“中间路线”受到越来越公开、越来越直接的批评。在流亡社会转型的当口,思想开放、人格独立的阿沛•晋美竟然“向独立派人士和反对声音提供讲台”,必然让流亡政府中的保守官员们震怒。

1998年,晋美在接受旅法作家、自由撰稿人安琪采访时暗示,达赖喇嘛已被传统神化。他直言不讳,政教合一制度不是一个很好的制度。这种制度已经不太适合今天的世界了。他大胆放言:西藏的活佛转世制度,我觉得也要改变。晋美不怕犯众怒,竟敢质疑“西藏人建寺庙的狂热”:“很多人都去当喇嘛、当尼姑,一生积蓄下来的那么一点钱,都放到寺庙去了,……。我特别同情这些人,你用这些积蓄改善生活也好,盖个房子也好,干什么非得交给寺庙?”

阿沛•晋美是流亡藏人中少有的思想家。关于藏民族的历史文化遗产,阿沛的态度颇为开明,“如何在继承的过程中不排除现代各个民族的不同文化,既吸收新的东西,又把旧传统里的好坏分清楚,这是藏民族面临的一个非常重大的课题。能不能接受这个挑战,是一种很大的考验。”阅读安琪的这篇采访,我开始欣赏晋美的独立人格:“流亡藏人的宣传工作也很厉害,西方传媒比较倾向于相信这些。因为中共的声誉不是特别好,所以中共的宣传很多人不相信。”

【嘉央诺布被誉为流亡藏人中的才子。2010年,他曾刊文质疑时任流亡政府总理桑东仁波切(Samdhong Rinpoche)。藏人在跟帖评论中直言不讳,“藏人大众正在被某些既得利益者误导”。“我们确实需要反对党了。”有藏人措辞激烈:桑东的言论无异于原子弹,是对藏民族和未来的最大威胁。网民ChristopheB称,现在藏人对流亡政府的信心在流失、藏人社会的政治对立在加剧,桑东仁波切应对此负责。Gendunchopal评论说,桑东仁波切应澄清言论并公开道歉。还有人建议,桑东和嘉央诺布应公开对话,以正视听。】

晋美事件发生后,部分媒体和藏人直指幕后的西藏流亡政府。2012年7月初,洛桑桑盖率团到访美国,特地与美国广播理事会总裁迈克尔•米汉、国际广播处处长理查德•德德洛博会面。有评论者称,2012年7月和2012年10月23日,有人看见自由亚洲电台台长利比刘和洛桑森盖两次在伦敦见面。一个星期后,晋美被解雇了。有人质问:他们谈了什么?这些会面和晋美被解雇有关系吗?洛桑桑盖的绿卡和房产也遭受质疑,甚至他和利比刘的私人“关系”也被晒出来。

救亡与启蒙

流亡藏人面临的救亡与启蒙困境,是由流亡瑞典的汉人作家茉莉女士首先提出来的。在流亡初期,救亡图存是流亡藏人的最高使命,政教合一的弊端并未显现出来。但随着第二代、第三代流亡藏人走上历史舞台,随着民主化和现代化浪潮的反复撞击,流亡藏人中反对“中间路线”、质疑达赖转世仪轨、批评政教合一制度的声音凸现出来。直到今天,由于惯性和利益使然,流亡政府依然把救亡图存作为最高使命,而在启蒙与创新方面着力并不太多。

茉莉认为,“救亡与启蒙,二者不但不矛盾,而且有深刻的内在联系。一旦西藏人都获得自由、民主和平等的价值观,会更有力地投入救亡之中,推动西藏民族的自救运动。” 在茉莉看来,阿沛•晋美和他领导的自由亚洲电台藏语部“很努力地面对救亡与启蒙这两大历史任务。”安琪认为,阿沛•晋美为捍卫新闻的中立、公正原则,刻意与西藏流亡政府保持距离。保守的流亡藏人却认为,自由亚洲电台藏语部就应该捍卫流亡藏人的利益。这或许是最初的纷争起因。

令人欣慰的事,藏族作家唯色对茉莉的观点不仅认同,而且表达更为直率。晋美事件发生后,唯色对流亡政府的反省达到了相当高的境界:专制权力“绝不只是指共产党专制政权或任何国家权力,事实上,受到压迫与迫害的流亡政体的权力,往往也会变成另一种专制的化身。或者说,在这之间,存在着一种共生的关系,相互需要,相互寄生,相互并存。至于真正的独立、自由的思想,总是受到‘排斥与打击’”。

在达赖喇嘛辞去政治职务后,流亡政府的国际号召力面临考验。藏人事业如何破局?境内外都有藏人在苦苦探索。境内藏人的自焚、民间组织的“拉嘎运动”、流亡政府新近组织的“团结运动”,都未能引起国际社会足够的关注。在当今世界,国际博弈的四大武器是外交、信息、军事和经济(合称DIME),流亡政府仅靠信息武器显然难以成事。值得关注的是,海外藏人在努力吸取国际上最先进的抗争策略,而北京方面接收新思维的阻力太大、成本太高。

在晋美事件发生后,唯色、嘉央诺布等藏人发文声援晋美,但这些文章都遭到保守藏人的指责。反对者的逻辑是,在藏人事业面临危机的当下,把藏人内部的纷争公开化,既不利于藏人社会的团结,还给中共留下宣传口实。更有甚者,严词指责唯色挑起藏人内斗、“抹黑RFA和流亡藏人社会”、“使中共从中渔利”。【2010年,当嘉央诺布质疑桑东仁波切时,一些藏人以同样的口吻指责他。若干年前,我读过一篇质疑流亡政府招聘公正性的文章,作者竟被指撒谎、背叛。】

金援与募捐

2013年1月19日,美国议员达纳•罗拉巴切发布致西藏流亡政府司政洛桑桑盖的公开信,对司政和藏人其他领导人试图操纵自由亚洲电台新闻报道“表示愤怒”。罗拉巴克写到,“你和其他藏族领导人所采取的行动,正在侵蚀美国国会对藏人事业的支持。你和你的同伙必须立即停止针对自由亚洲电台及其忠诚的、勤勉的藏族美国员工的诋毁性言论和有害行动。”

罗拉巴克强调,“我不会容忍你或你的同事实施任何阴谋,来剥夺自由亚洲电台提供的藏人公开辩论的乐趣及信息的自由交流。” 他补充道,一项严重的指控说,“美国向藏人提供的资助可能已被乱花。如果美国的援助已被不当使用,甚或进入中共和西藏权力经纪人的口袋,我将会知情,并将采取行动。” 罗拉巴克的公开信指,2012年美国政府对流亡藏人的资助为750万美金。

洛桑桑盖是西藏流亡政府首位民选司政,罗拉巴切给他的这封信措辞严厉,教训意味极浓。这一切如发生在正常的国家之间,后果是极为严重的。罗拉巴切致洛桑桑盖的信发出四天之后,西藏流亡议会强硬回应罗拉巴切的公开信,称“对地位尊崇的阁下在信中使用如此诋毁性、骂街式的语言深感痛心”,对阁下在司政回应您的质疑之前公开信件内容“深感震惊”,对您指责流亡政府乱花美国资助“感到吃惊”。

但也有流亡藏人辩称,罗拉巴切是美国众院外交事务委员会监督与调查附属委员会的主席,有权力予以监督、质询。有藏人自我解嘲,即使对美国高官、上将,议员们也会使用咄咄逼人的语气质问。“考虑到美国对流藏人事业的重要性”,绝大多数藏族评论者都极为谨慎、相当克制。还有藏人称,流亡议会的回应过于草率,公关技术含量低。有藏人怯怯地写道,“罗拉巴切写给洛桑森盖的信件能否更加婉转?”

晋美事件折射出西藏流亡政府与金援国美国的复杂关系:流亡政府需要资助,美国金主财大气粗。罗拉巴切的逻辑是,如果流亡政府干预自由亚洲电台的运作,美国政府就会重新考虑对藏人的援助。流亡政府没有自己的财政收入,所以罗拉巴切的威胁正中要害。晋美事件发生后,莫拉•莫伊尼汉直言不讳,“自由亚洲电台是美国纳税人资助的,不是为达兰萨拉工作的非政府组织。”她在另一次评论中提醒说,“(自由亚洲电台)是美国纳税人买单的吧?”

权斗与未来

晋美被解职后,现居澳大利亚的藏人安乐业评论说,“西藏高层贵族人士善于利用他人绊倒‘不欣赏’的人,而且,很善于制造出堂而皇之的理由。” “中共间谍”就是抹黑对手、排除异己的“一种惯用手段”。大宝法王噶玛巴自抵达兰萨拉之日起,就被贴上了“中国间谍”的标签。这次,阿沛•晋美又被指为“中共间谍”。有趣的是,这次也有部分藏人暗示流亡政府高层“通共”、向中共表明“招安的赤诚心情”。

安乐业出语惊人:某些流亡藏人高官把佛教“视为一种应付众人的手段”。对常人而言,此说无异于洪水猛兽,但对政客而言,佛教本来就是一种战略工具:对内,可用于操纵认知、凝聚人心;对外,可用于树立形象、建立联盟。半岛电视台新闻网1月11日刊文称,中国和印度已把佛教当作在亚洲竞争的武器。上世纪中叶,美国人曾把藏传佛教当作围堵中国的一种工具。目前,针对藏人自焚,立场不同的佛教徒的解读针锋相对,藏传佛教事实上已成为斗争工具。

在晋美事件上,嘉央诺布在《捍卫衮顿,自由RFA》一文中暗示,达赖喇嘛已经成为某些政客用于扩大权力、巩固地位的一种政治资源。安乐业则更进一步:“他们把高举拥护‘达赖喇嘛指示’来否定达赖喇嘛伟绩的举动由来已久”。在达赖喇嘛退出行政管理、流亡社会民主化初期,藏族流亡社会是否会加速分化?派系势力会否逐步坐大?从长远看,党派政治能否成为选项之一?西藏流亡政府在失去达赖喇嘛光环的前提下,如何赢得国际支持和内部团结,是对流亡政府政治智慧与生存能力的最大考验。

眼下,流亡藏人还面临着生存压力、身份困境、路径选择、社会团结、制度改造、形象维护等难题。每一个民族在不同的历史时期,都会面临不同的困境和压力。在很大程度上,不断突破困境的过程,就是该民族引以为豪的历史。目前,将藏人自焚运动转化为利己的运作资本,争取重启与北京的“对话”,来为新政府的合法性(legitimacy)“背书”,应是流亡政府孜孜以求的一大目标。在社会转型期,流亡藏人社会早一天完成蜕变,就能早一天掌握生存与发展的主动权。

(毕研韬系海南大学传播学研究中心主任、国际战略传播学会理事长)

Nov 04

Dalai Lama, Tibet and Western Media

Written by: Chua Wei Ling | Filed under:-chinese-posts, -guest-posts | 4 Comments » newest 2012-04-28 16:56:34

China has often being misunderstood by the Western public due to factual distortion by Western’s journalists and writers. Bruce Gilley, an assistant professor of political science at Portland State University’s Mark O. Hatfield School of Government, posted an article with The National Interest (28 September 2011) under the title: “Meet the New Mao“, created a number of factual errors and disinformation about China leader-in-waiting, Xi Jinping recent visit to Tibet.
Factual Errors or Factual Distortions?
Continue reading »

Oct 08

minipost-Liu Xiaobo

Written by: rolf | Filed under:-chinese-posts, -guest-posts, -mini-posts, General | Tags:, , ,
1 Comment » newest

Liu Xiaobo has received money from the American government for years:

Wikipedia: “Liu Xiaobo … President of the Independent Chinese PEN Center since 2003”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liu_Xiaobo

Grants to Liu Xiaobo, President of ICPC, “Independent Chinese PEN Centre, Inc.”, from the NED (National Endowment for Democracy), a US government entity:

Independent Chinese PEN Centre, Inc. (2009)
http://www.ned.org/where-we-work/asia/china
Scroll down to “Independent Chinese PEN Centre, Inc.”
$152,950

Independent Chinese PEN Centre, Inc. (2007)
$135,000
http://www.ned.org/publications/annual-reports/2007-annual-report/asia/description-of-2007-grants/china

Independent Chinese PEN Centre, Inc. (2006)
$135,000
http://www.ned.org/publications/annual-reports/2006-annual-report/asia/description-of-2006-grants/china

Total sum from NED for Independent Chinese PEN Centre: US $422 950

Chinese PEN Center is not the only source of money for Liu Xiaobo. He also gets money from NED for Minzhu Zhongguo, “Democratic China, Inc.”, where he is the Founder:

http://www.ned.org/where-we-work/asia/china
Scroll down to “Democratic China, Inc.”
$195,000 (2009)
$18,000 (Supplement)

Democratic China, Inc.
$145,000 (2007)
http://www.ned.org/publications/annual-reports/2007-annual-report/asia/description-of-2007-grants/china

Democratic China, Inc.
$136,000 (2005)
http://www.ned.org/publications/annual-reports/2005-annual-report/asia/description-of-2005-grants/china

Total sum Democratic China, Inc. from NED: $ 494 000

Total support from NED during the three years is US$ 916 950 which is about 7 million yuan – a huge sum of money in China – where salaries are about 20% of the level in Western countries.

NED (National Endowment for Democracy) is funded by the American government, and is subject to congressional oversight – which is a prettier word for “government control”. The purpose is to fund individuals, political parties and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) favourable to US interests.

The payment from NED to US-friendly groups is not a new thing. Eric T. Hale showed in his dissertation (2003) that during the 1990s, China and Russia were awarded the highest number of NED grants with 222 and 221, respectively. Total payment to groups in China during these ten years was astonishing US$ 20.999.229, which equals 140 million Chinese yuan.
http://etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-1105103-140728/unrestricted/Hale_dis.pdf

In 1991, Allen Weinstein, who helped draft the legislation establishing NED, candidly said: “A lot of what we do today was done covertly 25 years ago by the CIA.” In effect, the CIA launders money through NED. (Washington Post, Sept.22, 1991)

New York Times wrote on December 4, 1985: “The National Endowment for Democracy is a quasi-governmental foundation created by the Reagan Administration in 1983 to channel millions of Federal dollars into anti-Communist ‘private diplomacy.'”
http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/l/labor_role_in_politics/index.html?s=oldest&query=POLITICS%20AND%20GOVERNMENT&field=des&match=exact

Republican congressman from the Texas Gulf Coast, Dr. Ron Paul, who is more Libertarian than Republican, writes: “The misnamed National Endowment for Democracy is nothing more than a costly program that takes US taxpayer funds to promote favored politicians and political parties abroad. What the NED does in foreign countries … would be rightly illegal in the United States.”
http://www.iefd.org/articles/paying_to_make_enemies.php

Former CIA-agent Ralph McGehee writes: “… the current US policy of using (rightly or wrongly) the theme of human rights violations to alter or overthrow non-US-favored governments. In those countries emerging from the once Soviet Bloc that is forming new governmental systems; or where emerging or Third World governments resist US influence or control, the US uses ‘human rights violations,’ as an excuse for political action operations. ‘Human Rights’ replaces ‘Communist Conspiracy’ as the justification for overthrowing governments.”

Patrick French writes “The NED constitutes, so to speak, the CIA’s “civilian arm”.”

In that meaning The Nobel Peace Prize Committee’s decision becomes a political plot, and Liu Xiaobo becomes an American agent.

Jun 27

I worked in China as a journalist on and off for most of the late 90’s and early 2000’s. I never quite knew what to write about the constant popular protest going on – little uprisings about the place. Did they mean the country was in trouble? They’re still going on today, and I just loved talking to Elizabeth Perry, one of the most amazing Western professors on China, who really put it all in context for me (again, like the previous interview I posted, also choosing five books on the subject):
http://fivebooks.com/interviews/elizabeth-perry-on-popular-protest-china

Jun 27

Xinran on understanding China

Written by: guest | Filed under:-chinese-posts, -guest-posts | No Comments » newest

This is the last interview I’m posting, but here is Xinran suggesting that if you read these fivebooks, you’ll understand China!
http://fivebooks.com/interviews/xinran-on-understanding-china

Jun 27

I really think that Chinese dissidents have been marginalized, which is a pity, when what they say is so important.
Here, another interview about books I’d like to post, with Laogai survivor, Harry Wu.
Sophie
http://fivebooks.com/interviews/harry-wu-on-communist-china

Jun 27

Hi everyone, I have been interviewing various authorities on China-related themes, and I wanted to post some of them for anyone who is interested. Firstly, I have Rod MacFarquhar on the Cultural Revolution.
He chooses the five best books on it and also says that China is in denial about it and needs to come to terms with it, that it’s not healthy:
http://fivebooks.com/interviews/rod-macfarquhar-on-cultural-revolution

May 06

Amidst the accusations of China’s belated response to the devastating earthquake that hit Yushu county in Eastern Tibet in the early hours of April 14, the downplaying in the Chinese media of the key role that Tibetan monks played in the rescue efforts and mourning ceremonies, alongside reports of Chinese rescue workers who seemed more interested in posing for cameras than in saving lives, there is a small story that transcends it all.

There are few outside of China and Tibet who have heard of Tsering Dhondup, a ten-year-old Tibetan boy who saw his home and the homes of all his neighbors completely flattened in the 6.9 quake. Since then, he’s been living with his family in a temporary shelter in the local stadium in Jyekundo, the town most affected by the disaster, where 85% of the mud-brick houses like Tsering’s were destroyed.

Tsering volunteered to work as a translator for a Chinese medical team that was treating Tibetan survivors. The state-controlled national news channel CCTV, Chinese Central Television, aired a report about him that on April 17, three days after the earthquake….

Read full article and watch the Youtube video here:
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rebecca-novick/chinese-media-courts-the_b_562163.html

Apr 28

以“总体战”捍卫国家利益是信息化与全球化时代的必然要求。但国内至今还有人简单地认为,“总体战”就是指陆、海、空、天、电五维战场的军事博弈;“总体战”只适于战争时期。事实上,“总体战”的本质是国家或民族间的总体力量对决,“总体战”早已是和平时期国际博弈的主要形式。

就战争而言,德国军事家埃里希•冯•鲁登道夫说,“总体战不单单是军队的事,它直接涉及到参战国每个人的生活和精神。”就和平年代的国际博弈来看,“总体战”不单单是政府的事,它延伸到“参战国”的所有领域,涉及所有组织和个人。当今的国际博弈往往在传媒、政治、经济、文化、社会、外交、军事、情报等领域同步展开,以整合型传播谋求最大影响力。

美国国防部长罗伯特•盖茨说,“从长远来看,我们无法通过杀戮或俘虏来夺取胜利。在20世纪,非军事行动——劝说和激励——是赢得意识形态对抗的重要武器。在21世纪同样如此,甚至更为重要。”为此,美国人致力于提升国家“巧实力”。美国国务卿克林顿•希拉里大力推行“全民外交”和“互联网外交”。

美国主流舆论要求工商、慈善、宗教、传媒、教育、文化、NGO乃至普通公民都肩负起外交使命。政治学者迈克尔•哈特和安东尼奥•内格雷认为,当今时代的权力主体不仅有传统的民族国家,还有超国家机构、非政府组织和资本(譬如跨国公司)。相对而言,中国尚未培育出多元化的国际博弈主体,目前的政府单一模式成本高、效益低。

和平时期的国际博弈主要体现为信息博弈。“总体战”原则要求综合考虑传播主体、传播渠道、传播对象、传播内容、传播目标和传播效果。一切以成本最小化、效益最大化为指针。对此,美国前副国务卿夏洛蒂•比尔斯直言不讳:“我会选择任何传播方式,只要它有效。”这和阿道夫•希特勒的格言“我会使用一切手段击败敌人”并无二致。

国际博弈的目标是保障国家利益最大化。无论针对公众还是精英,国际传播的主要目的是影响目标国家的决策者。美国政治学者加布里埃尔•阿尔蒙德把外交决策过程中的舆论主体分为四类:普通公众、关注问题的公众、舆论精英和政策精英。要影响目标国家的政策制订,就必须洞悉对方的舆论环境和决策机制,系统考虑利益相关者之间的相互影响。

加拿大学者赵月枝指出,“美国的文化统治已经演变成跨国公司文化的统治”;“传播系统是与军事和金融力量并列的帝国的三股主要支撑力量之一”;“帝国已把自己的触角深入到非政府非商业领域,把这些组织纳入自己的轨道,将其当作可变通的实现自己目标的途径。”换言之,帝国早已把新闻媒体、跨国企业、民间组织都改造成了“前端组织”,建立起了一个无孔不入的“影子国家”。

N渠道外交是当今国际交流的常态。美国前副国务卿凯伦•休斯主张通过“四个E”,即接触(Engage)、交流(Exchange)、教育(Education)和授权(Empower),来开展公共外交、保障国家利益。西方学者坦承,交战国的新闻媒体也往往处于冲突状态。即使在和平年代,每当国家利益冲突加剧时,新闻媒体和公共舆论也会彼此对立。但在双边利益较为一致时,非官方传播主体更容易达到“润物细无声”的理想境界。新闻媒体难以超越国家利益。

“总体战”贯穿于宏观、中观和微观层次的国际交往中。从具体作业看,西方学者认为,信仰、价值观和(或)动机共同塑造态度,而态度影响行为。虽然对外传播的终极目标是影响对方的行为,但这不可强求。传播目标要根据对方的信仰、价值观、动机和态度而定。传播目标因此可分为五个层次:动摇对方、减少对抗、改变态度、强化利我态度、催生利我行为。在其它条件不变的情况下,不同的传播目标需要不同的传播内容。

每个人都是特定群体、组织中的人,都会程度不同地受信息环境的影响。所以,针对不同的目标群体,我们需要采取多元化诉求策略,需要同时影响特定目标及其周边意见领袖,以防止舆论环境与我方影响相抵触。”总体战”要求通盘考虑传播作业的时间、空间、媒介等要素整合。传播作业强调技战术配合。由相同或不同的传播者,在相同或不同场合下,针对相同或不同的目标,通过相同或不同的媒介,传递相同或不同的信息,对传播效果的影响十分明显。

传播理论和传播模式在与时俱进,“善行外交”、“公共外交2.0”、“思想战”等新概念层出不穷。西方的传播作业早已进入运用实验、统计等加以论证的精密科学时代,其结果恰如马来西亚前总理马哈蒂尔所说,美国“垄断了一切理由”。对台售武有理、进攻伊拉克有理、出兵阿富汗有理、制裁朝鲜有理、支持达赖喇嘛有理,“发动战争来终止战争”也有理。在国际博弈中,只有有效“合法化”自己的权力、政策和行为,才能保障国家利益最大化。

至于中美关系,专门探讨中国事务的境外博客网站Fool’s Mountain 上常有精辟见解。博主r v认为,中美之间自20世纪八十年代末就已处于Cold Erosion War状态。他在答复笔者询问时解释说,此处的erosion大致相当于flooding(淹没),所以Cold Erosion War可以勉强译为“冷淹战”。他认为,美国一直在试图“淹没”中国,而中国也在试图“消蚀”美国的影响力。显然,r v所指的“冷淹战”是“冷战”的一种新形式,而“冷淹战”只能是“总体战”。

(©2010 版权所有。印刷媒体转载须经作者同意。毕研韬系海南大学传播学研究中心主任、【北京】三略研究院传播学研究所所长)

Jan 16

I will start with a big laugh! When a sign in a beautiful museum says, “No cameras and video taping is allowed”, what do you think it meant? And what do you think a Chinese tourist will do?

The ongoing talks about Mainland Chinese’s civic conscience and daily public behavior are mostly negative. But it is not always racially prejudicial nor finger pointing. All we have to do is to look at this guy Haison Jiang and listen to his friends. He defiantly sneaked through Newark’s Liberty Airport and caused a 6 hour delay and pain for several thousand people. Forget about what the US should do or do to that TSA guard who stepped away. They should improve, make changes and the guard should be reprimanded, etc, etc.. But the fingers should all point at Jiang. With people like this, what can we really do? Why he did it? Here is the interesting part:

Jiang’s friend said, “He didn’t mean anything malicious!”. That’s it! These are well educated graduate students. Not poor peasants from some rural villages. That showed how low and distorted their sense of right or wrong has become.   As long as Jiang did not carry a bomb, what’s the big deal if he ignored the signs and rules? How clumsy and inefficient the Americans are.

Who said Jiang was malicious and did it have to be malicious? It all comes down to “pay no attention to the rules”, “pay no mind to other people” and “pay no mind to the signs”. I don’t think Jiang meant anything malicious. So are those who spit in front of you, talk loudly on subway trains, cutting in front of people who are waiting in line, taking pictures and videos where it is clearly prohibited, smoking where they shouldn’t …….  No wonder they said China has more freedom than the US.

My uncle spat on the rug in a restaurant in Guangzhou and said it was okay because the workers would clean the floor every night anyway. He didn’t mean to be malicious.  I don’t even think that those who sold tainted baby milk meant to be malicious. They just wanted to make more money and couldn’t care less about anyone else. These are just characteristics of a people whose values had been distorted first by a brutal and destructive period of time and then by a materially rich but morally poor and intellectually stifling system. A political system that believes that by having control, censorship,  a single voice, a single national ideology and a single life’s aspiration will lead to a safe and harmonious society.

At my age, I am not sad any more. China is still not free.  It is a authoritative state.  The crime is: it sweetens the bitterness by corrupting the mind of its people.  Everyone becomes materialistic.  The most rewarding and safest way to live in China is being materialistic.    I don’t give a damn for the people who choose to ignore this part of China and just go for its wealth and opportunities. I don’t feel any part of this “rising great nation”. But the West is going to learn. It may not be China’s toys, drywall, tires, bogus CDs, or its money and military might that will bother and scare the West. It may well come down to someone who urinate in their streets. The latter is more realistic.

Nov 16

被遗忘的天空

Written by: admin | Filed under:-Chinese-essay, -chinese-posts | No Comments » newest

Note: This is a submission for our bilingual essay contest

笔者系苏北徐州籍学生,想仅就当地的农村教育做下简单的分析。
众所周知,江苏为教育大省。而处于苏北的徐州,经济发展虽远落后于苏南,而较西北偏远地区的城市也还算可以的了。那么请跟随笔者来粗略了解下我们的农村教育现状吧。
笔者当年初中未读至一半,即有学生陆续辍学,更多的则是中考一完毕就踏入了社会。当中辍学的学生,固然有着学习压力的原因,但对于大批量读完初中就不愿继续求学的学生,我们应该作何解释呢?
在此之前,请允许我想说下这些辍学或者接受完初中教育的学生,大都从事的工作。以笔者所在村子和附近村庄为例,初中结业的学生,多在附近作坊式的工厂从事车床或气焊工作,或跟随长辈或投靠亲友学习手艺。工作作业时间长、劳动量的繁重使得部分人选择了外出务工,还有小部分走上了不务正业的道路。(笔者当年的同学,就有一些被捕入狱的。这委实不能不让人感到心痛。)
还有一些学生在读完初中初中之后,读了技校,再之后的谋生手段也就因人而异了。至于念完高中并顺利完成大学本科教育的,究竟是少数。更多的则是如上所述,而且及早地(结婚法定年龄在这里不作数)就已结婚生子。初中成了一个分水岭,教育的链条自此开裂。

这其中的原因,依笔者浅见有三。一为学费高昂。高中三年所需学杂费大体要接近三万,再加上两万元就可以盖一栋小楼了。正是基于这种所谓小农经济心理,很多人放弃了教育的投资,另谋出路。二来是读书无用论的流行。大量大学毕业生找不到工作或者工资低下的传闻,让农民们心灰意冷,完全看不到了出路。身处这种影响之下的孩子们的心境,我们也可想而知。一方面是家境的贫寒,另一方面是高中学习的重压和读书无用论的作祟,两面夹击,放弃成了非常合理的选择。
三是农村教师教育方式上的简单粗暴。这点在小学和初中表现得尤为突出。欧打学生者有之,谩骂学生者有之,讽刺学生者亦有之。身体上的伤害和心理上侮辱,严重伤了孩子们纯真的心,使他们及早地埋下了愤恨的种子,视残酷为正常。笔者当年就曾亲睹初中同学因被老师用黑板擦砸到眼镜,而和老师大打出手,事后毅然决然地将课桌搬回家,再也没返回校园。

面对这样的教育现状,笔者以为可以采取以下措施来谋求改变。首先政府切实减轻农村学生负担:九年义务教育期间课本公用,杂费减少,这使得他们可以选择继续投资更高的教育;像宣传计划生育一样加强知识改变命运的宣传,强调教育的重要性,给农民们一个希望,哪怕它很遥远。
第二,提高农村教育者工资(相对城市教师严重低下的工资,又如何不让他们感到生活的重压呢?);定期对农村教师进行教育心理学等相关培训,学习和理解温柔地对待学生、呵护学生。能被老师温暖的学生,都是有福的。
这点最重要。
第三,初中课程开设阅读课,提供书籍,让农村的学生了解世界,放眼世界,坚定学习知识的心。

在今天这样的体制之下,笔者上述几点建议实行起来似乎也是困难重重。然而这并意味着这样的现状还要继续维持下去,并且完全没有改观的可能。笔者在此希望更多的有心之士,能够向所有的农村孩子多投注一点的目光,多增加一份关怀。

Nov 16

被遗忘的天空

Written by: admin | Filed under:-Chinese-essay, -chinese-posts | No Comments » newest

Note: This is a submission for our bilingual essay contest

笔者系苏北徐州籍学生,想仅就当地的农村教育做下简单的分析。
众所周知,江苏为教育大省。而处于苏北的徐州,经济发展虽远落后于苏南,而较西北偏远地区的城市也还算可以的了。那么请跟随笔者来粗略了解下我们的农村教育现状吧。
笔者当年初中未读至一半,即有学生陆续辍学,更多的则是中考一完毕就踏入了社会。当中辍学的学生,固然有着学习压力的原因,但对于大批量读完初中就不愿继续求学的学生,我们应该作何解释呢?
在此之前,请允许我想说下这些辍学或者接受完初中教育的学生,大都从事的工作。以笔者所在村子和附近村庄为例,初中结业的学生,多在附近作坊式的工厂从事车床或气焊工作,或跟随长辈或投靠亲友学习手艺。工作作业时间长、劳动量的繁重使得部分人选择了外出务工,还有小部分走上了不务正业的道路。(笔者当年的同学,就有一些被捕入狱的。这委实不能不让人感到心痛。)
还有一些学生在读完初中初中之后,读了技校,再之后的谋生手段也就因人而异了。至于念完高中并顺利完成大学本科教育的,究竟是少数。更多的则是如上所述,而且及早地(结婚法定年龄在这里不作数)就已结婚生子。初中成了一个分水岭,教育的链条自此开裂。

这其中的原因,依笔者浅见有三。一为学费高昂。高中三年所需学杂费大体要接近三万,再加上两万元就可以盖一栋小楼了。正是基于这种所谓小农经济心理,很多人放弃了教育的投资,另谋出路。二来是读书无用论的流行。大量大学毕业生找不到工作或者工资低下的传闻,让农民们心灰意冷,完全看不到了出路。身处这种影响之下的孩子们的心境,我们也可想而知。一方面是家境的贫寒,另一方面是高中学习的重压和读书无用论的作祟,两面夹击,放弃成了非常合理的选择。
三是农村教师教育方式上的简单粗暴。这点在小学和初中表现得尤为突出。欧打学生者有之,谩骂学生者有之,讽刺学生者亦有之。身体上的伤害和心理上侮辱,严重伤了孩子们纯真的心,使他们及早地埋下了愤恨的种子,视残酷为正常。笔者当年就曾亲睹初中同学因被老师用黑板擦砸到眼镜,而和老师大打出手,事后毅然决然地将课桌搬回家,再也没返回校园。

面对这样的教育现状,笔者以为可以采取以下措施来谋求改变。首先政府切实减轻农村学生负担:九年义务教育期间课本公用,杂费减少,这使得他们可以选择继续投资更高的教育;像宣传计划生育一样加强知识改变命运的宣传,强调教育的重要性,给农民们一个希望,哪怕它很遥远。
第二,提高农村教育者工资(相对城市教师严重低下的工资,又如何不让他们感到生活的重压呢?);定期对农村教师进行教育心理学等相关培训,学习和理解温柔地对待学生、呵护学生。能被老师温暖的学生,都是有福的。
这点最重要。
第三,初中课程开设阅读课,提供书籍,让农村的学生了解世界,放眼世界,坚定学习知识的心。

在今天这样的体制之下,笔者上述几点建议实行起来似乎也是困难重重。然而这并意味着这样的现状还要继续维持下去,并且完全没有改观的可能。笔者在此希望更多的有心之士,能够向所有的农村孩子多投注一点的目光,多增加一份关怀。

Nov 09

The Ambassador of Taiwan His Excellency Mr. Wenchyi Ong said that beside its unifying force a good film can easily strike a chord in the viewer. He was formally inaugurating the festival of films from Taiwan at Asian Academy of Film & Television. Family value, respect for the elderly, belief in democracy and diversity, working as a team and attaching importance to spiritual life are the dominant commonalities between the people of Taiwan and India he added. In his introductory remarks Prof. Sandeep Marwah said that watching films from Taiwan would indeed be a refreshing experience for the students. The Ambassador disclosed that he has invited the well known Taiwanese Director Ang Lee to make his next film in India and hoped that collaboration with Indian film producers will lead to making great films to tell the world remarkable stories of both India and Taiwan. The Ambassador of Taiwan accepted the life membership of International Film & Television Club on this occasion. Later he spoke to Noida people through Radio Noida 107.4 FM.

Oct 14

A friend recently visited Mao Zedong’s hometown, Shaoshan, during China’s national holiday week. One of the photo he took was a recount of conversation with Mao about his shabby pajama:

A day in the Summer of 1963, I went to Zhongnanhai’s laundry to fetch the Chairman’s clothes. The comrad at the laundry said the Chairman’s pajama is too old, can’t be washed, and is it time for new one? Few days later, I was eating with the Chairman. He was wearing the very pajama.

I said: “Chairman, time to change your pajama this year?”

The Chairman casually said: “The nation is going thru some difficulties, patching will do!”

I hushed a complaint: “But you’re the Chairman.”

“Oh, I’m the Chairman, Chairman’s closthes can’t be patched? Aren’t you wearing patched clothes?”

“Chairman, you and I are different.” I explained.

“How are we different, because I’m the Chairman? Aren’t I but one among the People?”

Oct 08

美国帝国大厦为了中国国庆亮红黄楼顶灯. 这消息在中国受到欢迎, 但在美国是完全相反.

根据纽约村庄之声博客 Roy Edroso, 红黄楼灯引起了美国博客们的义愤:

“帝国大厦腥血浸渗” – “Empire State Building, Drenched in Blood”

“先, 2/20/09 中共马克思主义标志飞在白宫…现在帝国大厦加入共产党…” – “First, we had the Red Chinese COMMUNIST government Flag flying at the Marxist House on 2.20.09…Now we have the Empire State building in NYC going all communist…”

“以后马克思、列宁、托洛茨基生日也要庆祝?” – “What’s next, Marx, Lenin and Trotsky’s birthday’s too?”

“令人作呕.” – “This is disgusting.”

“我们应该庆祝美国的共产革命, 庆祝有一天将拥有我们的中国 – “It’s only fitting we celebrate America’s own recent communist revolution by honoring the Chinese who will someday be our overlords”

“纪念现代邪恶帝国中国的谋杀犯和强奸犯令人作呕” – “Disgusting to honor the mudders and rapests of mordern evil empire China.”

Sep 26

Here is one of the many links on this story
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8262477.stm

This is free advertising for Made-in-China corp. – different from another bad story on bad quality on Chinese products.

The story has a kind, warm human touch too. Thanks Buffett!

Aug 23

They conquer the world – who wants to fight this powerful army (see pictures). They have the right stuffs (and dual missiles too).

This is also the reason China has been invaded so many times.

ca.jpg
ca2.jpg
ca3.jpg
ca4.jpg
ca5.jpg
ca6.jpg
ca8.jpg

You be the judge and let me know whether yours is a male’s point of view or a female’s.

Aug 05

郭宝锋, 你妈妈叫你不要诽谤警察

Written by: Charles Liu | Filed under:-chinese-posts, General | Tags:, , ,
5 Comments » newest 2009-11-20 20:17:15

郭宝锋, 你妈妈说言论自由有合法的限制, 不包括煽动,危害公共秩序的言论 – 你忘了死厨师案件吗?

她也说你不应该翻发假证据, 指责警察轮奸, 尸奸, 并涵盖了轮奸.  据美国计划生育组织这案件于宫外孕是一致的. 警方调查严晓玲的男朋友,他们的朋友,尸检,也证明她的死亡原因是子宫外孕,  卵管破裂,大量出血,休克.

你指责验尸官拔出子宫毁灭证据,但是,你知道拔出器官是尸检标准?你 Google 一下  “Rokitanski metnod” 好不好? 这和你认为严重轮奸可以打破卵管显示你缺乏基本知识.

郭宝锋, 你妈妈叫你不要诽谤警察.

Jul 20

  有时候我真的宁愿和布朗首相换个位置,哪怕他们下院所有的人都拿鞋子仍我。事实上议员们也不会象那个学生一样Simple和Naive.不过我今天真的想和布朗换个位置。
  
  参加88岁老太太的生日聚会却还要象小学生一样端端正正的坐着,她还真把自己当成我亲娘了,我亲娘也不会让人如此憎恨。我也不小了,70多岁人的身子骨,又不是铁人贝卢斯科尼,这样直着腰坐2个小时真是快要人命了。
  
  CCTV的镜头像一双婴儿的眼睛盯着我,但我又不能有任何感情的流露,这种场合又不需要我哭。我只好逼直腰板,凝视前方,我觉得我的肉笑了,但是皮可能没有笑。
  
  有时候我真的很想不明白的事情是岳敏君的那些笑脸真的有那么值钱吗?我把我这辈子锻炼下来的表情,随便拍张照都比他的强,还需要小辈们在水泥砖头里面原始积累吗?不过话又说回来积累都是很原始的。说实话除了卖卖鞋子衬衫这些,我们也想不出哪些地方能来钱。当然房地产除外了。
  
  说起房地产我这几天右眼就跳个不停,上海那幢楼难道是个征兆?今年银根已经松得不能再松了,用近平同志的话就是比小姐的裤带还松了,大家还不是想齐心把楼市给救起来?确实也看到了些小成绩,全国楼价5月开始大幅回升,江还用短信给我发了好几个赞字,老狐狸永远不忘赶时髦,不知道贝卢斯科尼有没有请他,还是把该给我的请帖给他了?唉!各扫门前雪,莫管他人风流事。上海是他的地盘,看他怎么处理了。顶多再给他们数落北京无能的一次机会吧,去年把杨同学揍成性无能,我就觉得是个征兆。
  
  我还是忍不住去出事的小区的网上论坛看了下,我感觉我们的民意支持率已经连布朗首相的工党都赶不上了,甚至还赶不上新纳粹党,不知道布朗还愿不愿意和我换?不过也只有他或许还能在中国政坛有的混,看来他还是接受了我今年春天和他私下谈话的建议,死不下台是我们两党的最大共同点,只可惜他们马上还有大选。我记得当时他给我的建议是让我们也来次大选,说是“合法化进程”。当时我还觉得可行,我想以我的人气要打败习公子之流就如探囊取物。不过出了伊朗的事情,现在没人再提这件事情了,他没内衣对英国恨之入骨,还问我们要不要向英国宣战,还真把我们当红军了。
  
  不过网上现在很多脏水是泼到我身上的,弄得我里外不是人,老百姓骂我炒房总理,房产商骂我想孟姜女哭倒长城。最让我受不了的是竟然有人恶搞我的地震名言为“多难兴楼市”,想我一句“多难兴邦”迷倒了多少教授、专家、学者、作家、记者、主持人?不知道教育部的同志有没有安排把这句话写进小学生课本?最好放在比江打油诗高一年级的课本。
  
  好了,闲言碎语了那么多,已经是明天的日记了。今天总算过完了。

Jul 04

There has been much comments, analysis, blogs over the Honduran “Incident”.

But the detractors of the current “new government” of Honduras miss the fundamental contradictions of their own arguments.

They argue that “this is not a coup, because ex-President Zelaya was removed for a good reason”. But that is simply an “end justifies the means” argument. Military Coups are wrong, not because we judged upon the justifications of the coups, but because we recognize that use of military force to change a government is simply the wrong means. It cannot be a Constitutional method.

They argue that “this is not a coup, because the military acted under the order of the Supreme Court of Honduras.” But they simply miss the point of even having a Supreme Court. A Supreme Court cannot simply make an order legal, when the Articles of Constitution of Honduras clearly does not prescribe “exile”.  “Removal” simply means removal from official authority.   After that, Zelaya would be powerless to act upon anything, but he should still be able to rally his supporters as legitimate politcal expression.  “Arrest” or “Exile” are fundamentally beyond the scope of “removal” as written in the Constitution of Honduras.

In this, I am reminded of the foundational principle of “Separation of Power”, and “Judicial restraint” in many Democracies.

In US history, a case was decided by the US Supreme Court, Marbury v. Madison, where the justices refused to sanction President Thomas Jefferson for ordering non-delivery of “appointment letters” for several judges. Thomas Jefferson had essentially refused to execute laws and appointments passed by the US Congress on the previous term. The US Supreme Court avoided the confrontation with the Executive body by dismissing the case on a “standing” issue.

The US Supreme Court believed that such issues would work themselves out by the People over the long term. And “judicial restraint” means that the court should refrain from making any orders to compel the other 2 political branches in show downs. Let alone use the military or side with the military in any arguments with the President.

They speak of the “unconstitutional referendum”, and how unpopular Zelaya is. But if he is indeed unpopular, then why worry about the “referendum”? Even if he won the “referendum”, it would not legally change the “Constitution”. The Honduran high court has already ruled that the “referendum” would have no legal effect on the Constitution.

The detractors have simply missed the whole point. The fundamental wrongfulness of “military coup” is in the madness of the “method”. Undoubtedly, many previous military coups listed similar “justifications”, but we do not look up the “justifications”, only the process of law. Whether Zelaya should be removed is not the question, but whether the Supreme Court of Honduras had the legal authority order “exile”, and whether the military of Honduras could legally execute such an order.

For such an order, and such justifications, the Supreme Court and the Military of Honduras, have done far more damage to the Democratic process of Honduras than a single Zelaya could possibly do with his “referendum”.

Had Zelaya succeeded in his “referendum”, it would at least be representative of the People’s will, and political branches of Honduran government can reach compromises, or even stand firm and refuse to accept Zelaya as President for a new term. (Surly that cannot be that difficult, if Zelaya is so unpopular.)

But now, we have a precedent of Honduran Supreme Court ordering the military to “remove” a president into “exile”.

The damage to the credibility of the Court’s impartiality and the military’s non-involvement in politics is untold.

And now, the Supreme Court of Honduras will have to deal with the consequential question, can they now be “removed into exile” by the foreign and domestic supporters of Zelaya?  Whatif tomorrow, 1 of the generals use his troops to “remove” the Justices into “exile” on the order of Congress?

*
I for one, now finally and fully appreciate the wisdom of Justice Marshall in Marbury v. Madison, and the principle of Judicial restraint.

Jun 15

【端陽、六四】

Written by: 007 | Filed under:-chinese-posts, General | 3 Comments » newest 2009-07-14 21:51:54

江水滔滔日夜流,神州六月氣如秋。
人間血化腥泉碧,史冊魂歸鐵筆愁。
恕我不趨時務走,勸君休與腐儒謀。
從今遠避焚坑地,怕學靈均犯上頭。

靈均=屈原